FFF-MALS

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What is FFF-MALS?

Christoph to provide additional information.

Why FFF-MALS?

Wyatt FFF-MALS a powerful system for nanoparticle characterization

FFF-MALS is a powerful method to separate and characterize larger species, such as very-high-molecular-weight polymers, liposomes, viruses, large protein aggregates, and similarly-sized analytes. These are not amendable for SEC separation, because of their size and fragile structure.

On the other hand, field-flow fractionation is a separation technique which covers the range of 1 to 1000 nm, and it can be coupled to Wyatt’s online instruments, just like SEC-MALS. FFF-MALS determines high-resolution, absolute and fully quantitative size distributions for all kinds of nanoparticles and macromolecules. Yet, it does this on large ensembles and so is not subject to the limitations of small particle numbers that affect some nanoparticle sizing techniques. So FFF greatly expands the range of applications for light scattering detectors, coupled to MALS creates a powerful system for nanoparticle characterization.

Who uses FFF-MALS?

FFF-MALS is used in many research institutions and industries, where complex samples with a wide size range need to be analyzed:

  • Pharmaceutical industry in development and formulation of nano drug delivery systems, vaccines and biopharmaceutical drugs
  • Molecular biology and nano medicine research, e.g. for extracellular vesicles and exosome research and drug and gene delivery
  • Polymer industry, both for high molar mass polymers used as rubbers and for high-end latex particles where a high-resolution sized distribution is needed
  • Research on environmental impact of nanoparticles and nano plastics
  • Research on colloidal transport of toxic materials in the environment
  • Research on engineered nano particles for novel applications
  • Applications in food research, to understand and improve viscosity enhancers and food additives
  • Many miscellaneous applications in various industries and research institutes

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How does FFF-MALS work?

Asymmetric Flow Field-Flow Fractionation is a one-phase chromatography technique, implemented in Wyatt's Eclipse® systems. High-resolution separation is achieved in a thin, ribbon-like channel by applying two flow streams. One in the longitudinal direction towards the outlet and a second cross-flow, in the perpendicular direction, which permeates through the porous bottom wall, consisting of a nano-porous membrane. The cross-flow acts as a force field, concentrating the sample against the bottom wall. Brownian motion represents a counter force working against the cross-flow. During focusing/relaxation a stationary equilibrium is established with an exponential concentration profile up into the channel. The average distance above the membrane depending on the diffusion coefficient of the sample only. The average height of the sample components above the bottom wall result in different transport velocity towards the channel outlet.

Smaller particles or macromolecules will elute first, followed by the larger components.

What constitutes a complete FFF-MALS system?

Basic

Christoph to provide additional information. Link to new Eclipse page.

Better

Christoph to provide additional information.

Full control

Christoph to provide additional information.

Extended

Christoph to provide additional information.

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How do I use FFF-MALS?

Streamlined Workflow

The Eclipse Flow FFF system comes with tools for a streamlined workflow, making it straightforward to develop a separation method, optimizing the method and perform advanced data processing procedures. Not only for the expert, but in a walk-up mode for everyone utilizing predefined methods and sequences.

Starting point is computer aided method development to create a flow program which is capable to separate a given set of sizes. Methods are run in automated sequences to process many samples in an unattended mode. All components of the system are controlled from one place, HPLC, Eclipse controller and ASTRA for MALS data acquisition.

Comprehensive data processing capabilities are available to get the most out of the experiment.

Service reminders and extensive log of system parameters help to maintain the system in perfect shape and prevent down time.

VISION

All software modules are accessed from one place, the VISION hub.

VOYAGER is for sample running, SCOUT for method development and processing. ASTRA for comprehensive light scattering acquisition and processing.

A system check application compiles all relevant data which allows Wyatt support to trouble shoot a possible problem. Licenses are managed in one place.

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MALS

DAWN® - The most sensitive MALS detector available, anywhere. Incorporates detectors at 18 angles to determine molar masses from 200 Da to 1 GDa and radii from 10 – 500 nm.

  • Standard option: ambient temperature
  • Heated/cooled option: -15°C to +150°C
  • High-temperature option: ambient to +210°C

The DAWN offers special options to handle fluorescent samples: fluorescence-blocking filters and an infrared, 785 nm laser. Learn more.

miniDAWN® - Second only to the DAWN in sensitivity. Incorporates detectors at 3 angles to determine molar masses from 200 Da to 10 MDa and radii from 10 – 50 nm. Ambient only. Learn more.

microDAWN™ - The first MALS detector for UHPLC, with interdetector dispersion as low as 1.5 µL. Incorporates detectors at 3 angles to determine molar masses from 200 Da to 20 MDa and radii from 10 – 50 nm. Ambient only. Learn more.

dRI

optilab t-rex, sec-mals, size exclusion chromatography, protein aggregation, polymer analysis, polymer molecular weight

Optilab® - A unique on-line differential refractometer for measuring concentration of any macromolecule, regardless of chromophores. Temperature controlled from 4°C to 65°C. The high-concentration option accommodates protein concentration up to 180 mg/mL. Learn more.

microOptilab™ - The first RI detector specifically designed for use with all UHPLC systems. Learn more.

IV

ViscoStar® - A highly sensitive, on-line differential viscometer used in conjunction with SEC-MALS to determine the size and conformation of all types of biopolymers, synthetic polymers and even proteins and peptides.

The ViscoStar incorporates multiple novel technologies to provide the highest sensitivity, stability and solvent compatibility of any available viscometer for GPC. Its ease-of-use and serviceability make it the perfect companion for Wyatt's DAWN® light scattering and Optilab® refractive index detectors. Temperature controlled from 4°C to 70°C. Learn more.

microViscoStar™ - Similar to the ViscoStar but designed specifically for use with UHPLC/APC. Learn more.

Online DLS

WyattQELS - dynamic light scattering module that can be embedded in any Wyatt MALS instrument for on-line DLS.

DynaPro® NanoStar® - stand-alone dynamic light scattering detector, may be connected via optical fiber to the flow cell of any Wyatt MALS instrument for on-line DLS.

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Theory

Please see the following pages for details of SEC-MALS theory:

These pages provide additional information on specific analyses performed in SEC-MALS:

Bibliography

An extensive searchable bibliography of publications citing Wyatt SEC-MALS instruments is available at www.wyatt.com/Bibliography. Just open the Advanced Search and click the Multi-Angle Light Scattering box, then enter your search terms below.

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If I get it, how will I manage?

https://www.wyatt.com/products/request-product-info.html